Bonnerot Barrett H. Rothwell, ; B. Constance Hull, introd. Frederick Street, Gilbert Cannan, with an introduction by Richard Church, Katherine Miller, William A. Drake, Van Wyck Brooks, ; Death of a World tr. Amalia De Alberti, Eino Palola, Catherine D. Groth, Bayerischer Rundfunk BR , dir.
Ernest Newman, Wilson, Hesse, Romain Rolland 29 January — 30 December was a French dramatist, novelist, essayist, art historian and mystic who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in He received his degree in history in and spent two years in Rome, where his encounter with Malwida von Meysenbug—who had been a friend of Nietzsche and of Wagner—and his discovery of Italian masterpieces were decisive for the development of his thought.
When he returned to France in , he received his doctoral degree with his thesis The origins of modern lyric theatre and his doctoral dissertation, A History of Opera in Europe before Lully and Scarlatti. His first book was published in , when he was 36 years old. Through his advocacy for a 'people's theatre', he made a significant contribution towards the democratization of the theatre. As a humanist, he embraced the work of the philosophers of India "Conversations with Rabindranath Tagore" and Mohandas Gandhi.
Rolland was strongly influenced by the Vedanta philosophy of India, primarily through the works of Swami Vivekananda. Rolland attempted to put his theory into practice with his melodramatic dramas about the French Revolution, Danton and The Fourteenth of July , but it was his ideas that formed a major reference point for subsequent practitioners. If you long for a people's art, begin by creating a people! The essay is part of a more general movement around the turn of that century towards the democratization of the theatre.
Rolland was a disciple of Pottecher and dedicated The People's Theatre to him. Rolland's approach is more aggressive, though, than Pottecher's poetic vision of theatre as a substitute 'social religion' bringing unity to the nation. Rolland indicts the bourgeoisie for its appropriation of the theatre, causing it to slide into decadence, and the deleterious effects of its ideological dominance. In proposing a suitable repertoire for his people's theatre, Rolland rejects classical drama in the belief that it is either too difficult or too static to be of interest to the masses.
Drawing on the ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, he proposes instead "an epic historical theatre of 'joy, force and intelligence' which will remind the people of its revolutionary heritage and revitalize the forces working for a new society" in the words of Bradby and McCormick, quoting Rolland. Rousseau's influence may be detected in Rolland's conception of theatre-as-festivity, an emphasis that reveals a fundamental anti-theatrical prejudice: "Theatre supposes lives that are poor and agitated, a people searching in dreams for a refuge from thought. If we were happier and freer we should not feel hungry for theatre.
Rolland's dramas have been staged by some of the most influential theatre directors of the twentieth century, including Max Reinhardt and Erwin Piscator. Rolland's most famous novel is the volume roman-fleuve Jean-Christophe — , which brings "together his interests and ideals in the story of a German musical genius who makes France his second home and becomes a vehicle for Rolland's views on music, social matters and understanding between nations".
A demanding, yet timid, young man, he did not like teaching. He was not indifferent to youth: Jean-Christophe, Olivier and their friends, the heroes of his novels, are young people. But with real-life persons, youths as well as adults, Rolland maintained only a distant relationship.
He was first and foremost a writer. Assured that literature would provide him with a modest income, he resigned from the university in Romain Rolland was a lifelong pacifist. In , his book on Gandhi contributed to the Indian nonviolent leader's reputation and the two men met in In he and Hungarian scholar, philosopher and natural living experimenter Edmund Bordeaux Szekely founded the International Biogenic Society to promote and expand on their ideas of the integration of mind, body and spirit.
His life was interrupted by health problems, and by travels to art exhibitions.
Romain Rolland and the Politics of Intellectual Engagement
His voyage to Moscow , on the invitation of Maxim Gorky, was an opportunity to meet Joseph Stalin, whom he considered the greatest man of his time. During the occupation, he isolated himself in complete solitude. Never stopping his work, in , he finished his memoirs. He also placed the finishing touches on his musical research on the life of Ludwig van Beethoven.
Zweig profoundly admired Rolland, of whom he once said to be: "the moral consciousness of Europe" during the years of turmoil and War in Europe. Freud opened his next book Civilization and its Discontents with a debate on the nature of this feeling, which he mentioned had been noted to him by an anonymous "friend". This friend was Rolland. Rolland would remain a major influence on Freud's work, continuing their correspondence right up to Freud's death in For with the latter, it is at least admitted that suffering is evil and that the person who causes it is a criminal.
But thousands of animals are uselessly butchered every day without a shadow of remorse. If any person were to refer to it, they would be thought ridiculous. And that is the unpardonable crime. That alone is the justification of all that humans may suffer. It cries vengeance upon all the human race. If God exists and tolerates it, it cries vengeance upon God. For more than 30 centuries, the tree of vision, with all its thousand branches and their millions of twigs, has sprung from this torrid land, the burning womb of the Gods.
It renews itself tirelessly showing no signs of decay. It possesses absolute liberty and unrivalled courage among religions with regard to the facts to be observed and the diverse hypotheses it has laid down for their coordination. Never having been hampered by a priestly order, each man has been entirely free to search wherever he pleased for the spiritual explanation of the spectacle of the universe. It would be more true to say that there are some who are more dead than the dead.
In any case there are old things which are still young. But I don't believe it. What has been good once never is good again. Revolt In English, first four volumes published in one. Republished in L'Esprit libre. Geneva, Cahier 3. Richard Strauss et Romain Rolland. Correspondance et fragments du Journal. Cahier 4. Cahier 5. Cette Ame ardente.
Cahier 6. Printemps Romain. Cahier 7. Cahier 8. Cahier 9.
Cahier Rabindranath Tagore et Romain Rolland. Ces Jours lointains. Deux Hommes se rencontrent.
Romain Rolland et le mouvement florentin de "la Voce. Edited by Henri Giordan. Choix de lettres de Romain Rolland — Gandhi et Romain Rolland. Correspondance, extraits du Journal et textes divers. Hermann Hesse et Romain Rolland. Correspondance, fragments du Journal et textes divers. Pour l'honneur de l'esprit. Jean-Christophe et Armel. Correspondance de Romain Rolland et de Jean Bodin.
Lyons, Edited by Jacques Robichez. Richard Strauss and Romain Rolland, Correspondence. Edited by Rollo Meyers. Berkeley, California, Bon Voisinage. Edmond Privat et Romain Rolland. Edited by Pierre Hirsch. Valence, Georges Anquetil. Essai sur Romain Rolland. Ernst Robert Curtius. Die literarischen Wegbereiter des neuen Frankreich. Potsdam, Pierre Grappin. Le Bund neues Vaterland — , ses rapports avec R. Lyons and Paris, Werner Ilberg. Traum und Tat. Halle, La Psychologie des peuples allemand et juif dans les romans de Romain Rolland.
Grasset, , p. Oui et non. Ombre de Raymond Queneau, que nous veux-tu? Hugo III. Est-ce au moins de la bonne vulgarisation? Hugo IV.
Hugo V. Hugo VI. Hugo VII. Hugo VIII. Hugo IX. Un seul exemple suffira.
Hugo X. Victor Hugo. On attend avec impatience la suite. Florence R. Loti I. Loti II.
Et dans tous les accoutrements. Malcom de Chazal. Man Ray. Hautement jubilatoire.