In exact conformity with his life is the account of his end. The book of Deuteronomy describes, and is, the long last farewell of the prophet to his people. This takes place on the first day of the eleventh month of the fortieth year of the wanderings, in the plains of Moab. The law is written out and ordered to be deposited in the ark. The song and the blessing of the tribes conclude the farewell. And then comes the mysterious close. He is told that he is to see the good land beyond the Jordan, but not to possess it himself.
He ascends the mount of Pisgah and stands on Nebo, one of its summits, and surveys the four great masses of Palestine west of the Jordan, so far as it can be discerned from that height. The view has passes into a proverb for all nations. And he buried him in a ravine? Beth-peor: but no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days.
This burial was thus hidden probably -- 1 To preserve his grave from idolatrous worship or superstitious reverence; and 2 Because it may be that God did not intend to leave his body to corruption, but to prepare it, as he did the body of Elijah, so that Moses could in his spiritual body meet Christ, together with Elijah, on the mount of transfiguration. Moses is spoken of as a likeness of Christ; and as this is a point of view which has been almost lost in the Church, compared with the more familiar comparisons of Christ to Adam, David, Joshua, and yet has as firm a basis in fact as any of them, it may be well to draw it out in detail.
Acts ; 35 In Jude is an allusion to an altercation between Michael and Satan over the body of Moses. It probably refers to a lost apocryphal book, mentioned by Origen, called the "Ascension" or "Assumption of Moses. Having been originally imposed by a native Egyptian princess, the word is no doubt Egyptian in its origin, and Josephus gives its true derivation-from the two Egyptian words, MO , water, and USE , saved. See Exodus Moses was born about His history is too extensive to permit insertion here, and in general too well known to need it. It is enough simply to remark, that it is divided into three periods, each of forty years.
The first extends from his infancy, when he was exposed in the Nile, and found and adopted y the daughter of Pharaoh, to his flight to Midian. During this time he lived at the Egyptian court, and "was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was nightly in words and in deeds," Acts This is no unmeaning praise; the "wisdom" of the Egyptians, and especially of their priests, was then the profoundest in the world. The second period was from his flight till his return to Egypt, Acts , during the whole of which interval he appears to have lived in Midian, it may be much after the manner of the Bedaween sheikhs of the present day.
Here he married Zipporah, daughter of the wise and pious Jethro, and became familiar with life in the desert. What a contrast between the former period, spent amid the splendors and learning of a court, and this lonely nomadic life. Still it was in this way that God prepared him to be the instrument of deliverance to His people during the third period of his life, which extends from the exodus out of Egypt to his death on mount Nebo.
In this interval how much did he accomplish, as the immediate agent of the Most High. The life and institutions of Moses present one of the finest subjects for the pen of a Christian historian, who is at the same time a competent biblical antiquary. His institutions breathe a spirit of freedom, purity, intelligence, justice, and humanity, elsewhere unknown; and above all, of supreme love, honor, and obedience to God. They molded the character of the Hebrews, and transformed them from a nation of shepherds into a people of fixed residence and agricultural habits.
Through that people, and through the Bible, the influence of these institutions has been extended over the world; and often where the letter has not been observed, the spirit of them has been adopted. Thus it was in the laws established by the pilgrim fathers of New England; and no small part of what is of most value in the institutions which they founded, is to be ascribed to the influence of the Hebrew legislator.
The name of this servant of God occurs repeatedly in Greek and Latin writings, and still more frequently in those of the Arabs and the rabbinical Jews. Many of their statements, however, are mere legends without foundation, or else distortions of the Scripture narrative. By the Jews he has always been especially honored, as the most illustrious personage in all their annals, and as the founder of their whole system of laws and institutions.
Numerous passages both in the Old and New Testament show how exalted a position they gave him, Psalm Isaiah Jeremiah Daniel Matthew John Acts ,37 Romans ,19 Hebrews In all that he wrought and taught, he was but the agent of the Most High; and yet in all his own character stands honorably revealed. Though naturally liable to anger and impatience, he so far subdued himself as to be termed the meekest of men, Numbers ; and his piety, humility, and forbearance, the wisdom and vigor of his administration, his unfailing zeal and faith in God, and his disinterested patriotism are worthy of all imitation.
Many features of his character and life furnish admirable illustrations of the work of Christ-as the deliver, ruler, and guide of his people, bearing them on his heart, interceding for them, rescuing, teaching, and nourishing them even to the promised land. All the religious institutions of Moses pointed to Christ; and he himself, on the mount, two thousand years after his death, paid his homage to the Prophet he had foretold, De , beheld "that goodly mountain and Lebanon," De , and was admitted to commune with the Savior on the most glorious of themes, the death He should accomplish at Jerusalem, Luke Moses was the author of the Pentateuch, as it is called, or the first five books of the Bible.
In the composition of them he was probably assisted by Aaron, who kept a register of public transactions, Exodus ,7 Numbers ,2 De , etc. Some things were added by a later inspired hand; as for example, De Psalm also is ascribed to him; and its noble and devout sentiments acquire a new significance, if received as from his pen near the close of his pilgrimage. Thus favoured, the Israelites began to "multiply exceedingly" Genesis , and extended to the west and south. At length the supremacy of the Hyksos came to an end.
The descendants of Jacob were allowed to retain their possession of Goshen undisturbed, but after the death of Joseph their position was not so favourable. The Egyptians began to despise them, and the period of their "affliction" Genesis commenced. They were sorely oppressed. They continued, however, to increase in numbers, and "the land was filled with them" Exodus The native Egyptians regarded them with suspicion, so that they felt all the hardship of a struggle for existence.
In process of time "a king [probably Seti I. The circumstances of the country were such that this king thought it necessary to weaken his Israelite subjects by oppressing them, and by degrees reducing their number. They were accordingly made public slaves, and were employed in connection with his numerous buildings, especially in the erection of store-cities, temples, and palaces.
The children of Israel were made to serve with rigour. Their lives were made bitter with hard bondage, and "all their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigour" Exodus , But this cruel oppression had not the result expected of reducing their number. On the contrary, "the more the Egyptians afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew" Exodus The king next tried, through a compact secretly made with the guild of midwives, to bring about the destruction of all the Hebrew male children that might be born.
But the king's wish was not rigorously enforced; the male children were spared by the midwives, so that "the people multiplied" more than ever. Thus baffled, the king issued a public proclamation calling on the people to put to death all the Hebrew male children by casting them into the river Exodus But neither by this edict was the king's purpose effected. One of the Hebrew households into which this cruel edict of the king brought great alarm was that of Amram, of the family of the Kohathites Exodus , who with his wife Jochebed and two children, Miriam, a girl of perhaps fifteen years of age, and Aaron, a boy of three years, resided in or near Memphis, the capital city of that time.
In this quiet home a male child was born B.
His mother concealed him in the house for three months from the knowledge of the civic authorities. But when the task of concealment became difficult, Jochebed contrived to bring her child under the notice of the daughter of the king by constructing for him an ark of bulrushes, which she laid among the flags which grew on the edge of the river at the spot where the princess was wont to come down and bathe.
Her plan was successful. The king's daughter "saw the child; and behold the child wept. She went and brought the mother of the child, to whom the princess said, "Take this child away, and nurse it for me, and I will give thee thy wages. As soon as the natural time for weaning the child had come, he was transferred from the humble abode of his father to the royal palace, where he was brought up as the adopted son of the princess, his mother probably accompanying him and caring still for him. He grew up amid all the grandeur and excitement of the Egyptian court, maintaining, however, probably a constant fellowship with his mother, which was of the highest importance as to his religious belief and his interest in his "brethren.
He at length became "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians" Acts Egypt had then two chief seats of learning, or universities, at one of which, probably that of Heliopolis, his education was completed. Moses, being now about twenty years of age, spent over twenty more before he came into prominence in Bible history.
These twenty years were probably spent in military service. There is a tradition recorded by Josephus that he took a lead in the war which was then waged between Egypt and Ethiopia, in which he gained renown as a skilful general, and became "mighty in deeds" Acts After the termination of the war in Ethiopia, Moses returned to the Egyptian court, where he might reasonably have expected to be loaded with honours and enriched with wealth.
But "beneath the smooth current of his life hitherto, a life of alternate luxury at the court and comparative hardness in the camp and in the discharge of his military duties, there had lurked from childhood to youth, and from youth to manhood, a secret discontent, perhaps a secret ambition. Moses, amid all his Egyptian surroundings, had never forgotten, had never wished to forget, that he was a Hebrew. This tour of inspection revealed to him the cruel oppression and bondage under which they everywhere groaned, and could not fail to press on him the serious consideration of his duty regarding them.
The time had arrived for his making common cause with them, that he might thereby help to break their yoke of bondage. He made his choice accordingly Hebrews , assured that God would bless his resolution for the welfare of his people. He now left the palace of the king and took up his abode, probably in his father's house, as one of the Hebrew people who had for forty years been suffering cruel wrong at the hands of the Egyptians. He could not remain indifferent to the state of things around him, and going out one day among the people, his indignation was roused against an Egyptian who was maltreating a Hebrew.
He rashly lifted up his hand and slew the Egyptian, and hid his body in the sand. Next day he went out again and found two Hebrews striving together. He speedily found that the deed of the previous day was known. Moved by fear, Moses fled from Egypt, and betook himself to the land of Midian, the southern part of the peninsula of Sinai, probably by much the same route as that by which, forty years afterwards, he led the Israelites to Sinai.
He was providentially led to find a new home with the family of Reuel, where he remained for forty years Acts , under training unconsciously for his great life's work. Suddenly the angel of the Lord appeared to him in the burning bush Exodus 3 , and commissioned him to go down to Egypt and "bring forth the children of Israel" out of bondage.
He was at first unwilling to go, but at length he was obedient to the heavenly vision, and left the land of Midian On the way he was met by Aaron q. He and Aaron had a hard task before them; but the Lord was with them ch. After an eventful journey to and fro in the wilderness, we see them at length encamped in the plains of Moab, ready to cross over the Jordan into the Promised Land. There Moses addressed the assembled elders Deuteronomy -4; - ; - , and gives the people his last counsels, and then rehearses the great song Deuteronomy 32 , clothing in fitting words the deep emotions of his heart at such a time, and in review of such a marvellous history as that in which he had acted so conspicious a part.
Then, after blessing the tribes 33 , he ascends to "the mountain of Nebo q. The people mourned for him during thirty days. Thus died "Moses the man of God" Deuteronomy ; Joshua He was distinguished for his meekness and patience and firmness, and "he endured as seeing him who is invisible. The name of Moses occurs frequently in the Psalms and Prophets as the chief of the prophets. In the New Testament he is referred to as the representative of the law and as a type of Christ John ; 2 Corinthians ; Hebrews , 6. Deuteronomy , 18, 19; Acts In Hebrews this likeness to Moses is set forth in various particulars.
In Jude mention is made of a contention between Michael and the devil about the body of Moses. This dispute is supposed to have had reference to the concealment of the body of Moses so as to prevent idolatry. Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary n. A large flatboat, used in the West Indies for taking freight from shore to ship. The great Hebrew national hero, leader, author, law-giver and prophet. LIFE 1. Son of Levi 2. Foundling Prince 3. Friend of the People 4. Refuge in Midian 5. Leader of Israel II.
The Author 2. The Lawgiver 3. It is needless to mention the old writers among whom these questions were hardly under discussion. Among the advocates of the current radical criticism may be mentioned Stade and Renan, who minimize the historicity of the Bible narrative at this point. Renan thinks the narrative "may be very probable. The critical analysis of the Pentateuch divides this life-story of Moses into three main parts, J, E, and the Priestly Code P , with a fourth, D, made up mainly from the others. Also some small portions here and there are given to R, especially the account of Aaron's part in the plagues of Egypt, where his presence in a J-document is very troublesome for the analytical theory.
It is unnecessary to encumber this biography with constant cross-references to the strange story of Moses pieced together out of the rearranged fragments into which the critical analysis of the Pentateuch breaks up the narrative. It is recognized that there are difficulties in the story of Moses. In what ancient life-story are there not difficulties? If we can conceive of the ancients being obliged to ponder over a modern life-story, we can easily believe that they would have still more difficulty with it.
But it seems to very many that the critical analysis creates more difficulties in the narrative than it relieves. It is a little thing to explain by such analysis some apparent discrepancy between two laws or two events or two similar incidents which we do not clearly understand. It is a far greater thing so to confuse, by rearranging, a beautiful, well-articulated biography that it becomes disconnected-indeed, in parts, scarcely makes sense.
The biographical narrative of the Hebrew national hero, Moses, is a continuous thread of history in the Pentateuch. That story in all its simplicity and symmetry, but with acknowledgment of its difficulties as they arise, is here to be followed. Son of Levi: The recorded story of Moses' life falls naturally into five rather unequal parts: "And there went a man of the house of Levi, and took to wife a daughter of Levi" Exodus The son of Levi born of that union became the greatest man among mere men in the whole history of the world.
How far he was removed in genealogy from Levi it is impossible to know. The genealogical lists Genesis Exodus Numbers ; Numbers 1 Chronicles show only 4 generations from Levi to Moses, while the account given of the numbers of Israel at the exodus Exodus ; Exodus Numbers ; Numbers imperatively demand at least 10 or 12 generations. The males alone of the sons of Kohath "from a month old and upward" numbered at Sinai 8, Numbers , It is evident that the extract from the genealogy here, as in many other places 1 Chronicles ; 1 Chronicles Ezra ; Ezra , 2 ; compare 1 Chronicles Matthew Luke is not complete, but follows the common method of giving important heads of families.
The statement concerning Jochebed: "And she bare unto Amram Aaron and Moses, and Miriam their sister" Numbers really creates no difficulty, as it is likewise said of Zilpah, after the mention of her grandsons, "And these she bare unto Jacob" Genesis , 18 ; compare , The names of the immediate father and mother of Moses are not certainly known.
The mother "saw him that he was a goodly child" Exodus So they defied the commandment of the king Exodus , and for 3 months hid him instead of throwing him into the river. The mother resolved upon a plan which was at once a pathetic imitation of obedience to the commandment of the king, an adroit appeal to womanly sympathy, and, if it succeeded, a subtle scheme to bring the cruelty of the king home to his own attention.
Her faith succeeded. She took an ark of bulrushes Exodus , 4 ; compare ARK OF BULRUSHES , daubed it with bitumen mixed with the sticky slime of the river, placed in this floating vessel the child of her love and faith, and put it into the river at a place among the sedge in the shallow water where the royal ladies from the palace would be likely to come down to bathe.
A sister, probably Miriam, stood afar off to watch Exodus , 4. The daughter of Pharaoh came down with her great ladies to the river Exodus The princess saw the ark among the sedge and sent a maid to fetch it. The expectation of the mother was not disappointed. The womanly sympathy of the princess was touched. So, I set out to find more about Argo, the first in an alphabetical sequence, during Monday's storm traveling southwest vicariously down the Mormon Trail and back to and northern Union Township instead of shoveling snow or venturing out.
The map is intended to put Argo in context, but is based on the assumption you know where Goshen Baptist Church is and if you don't, shame on you ; Derby and Last Chance, too. It's based on the land ownership map of Union Township. Argo dates from ; Last Chance, from the early s; and Derby, from Argo was located on the Mormon Trail a mile and a half west of Goshen Church built on the cemetery lot in , destroyed by a tornado in and rebuilt just to the east after that and Cemetery, initially in a log cabin built by Matthew and Elizabeth Irvin soon after they settled here during It was a post office and, at that time, post offices were wherever the postmaster was occasionally in his pocket.
The postmastership changed hands a few times during Argo's 20 years of existence and moved each time, mostly in the same immediate neighborhood, a couple of times, apparently, into Fancy Hill.
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For the record, Argo was established on Feb. He served until Jan. James turned the mail over to another neighbor, Simeon B. Chapman on June 22, , and he in turn passed the post on to John A. Robinson on May 12, Robinson handed the position back to Leech on June 17, ; then Leech returned the office to Irvin and he served this time until March 21, , when Alfred M. The Chasam Sofer emphasizes that this war was not fought at Moses' behest, but was commanded by God as an act of revenge against the Midianite women,  who, according to the Biblical account, had seduced the Israelites and led them to sin.
In Legend of the Jews , Phinehas son of Eleazar defend their innocent action in leaving the women remain alive because Moses instructed them to take revenge "only to the Midianites," without mentioning "Midianite women. I want to preach this morning from the subject, 'The Birth of a New Nation.
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It is the story of the Exodus, the story of the flight of the Hebrew people from the bondage of Egypt, through the wilderness and finally, to the Promised Land. And I've looked over. And I've seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Moses disambiguation. Moses with the Ten Commandments by Philippe de Champaigne. Goshen Lower Egypt , Ancient Egypt. Mount Nebo , Moab. Zipporah Cushite woman. Depending on interpretation Zipporah or a different woman . Gershom Eliezer. Amram father Jochebed mother.
Aaron brother Miriam sister. Further information: The Exodus. Further information: Moses in Judeo-Hellenistic literature. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Book of Moses. Main article: Moses in Islam. Balaam Samiri. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate.
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Retrieved 11 May Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. The Biblical Archaeologist. University of Chicago Press. Van Seters concluded, "The quest for the historical Moses is a futile exercise. He now belongs only to legend. Dever Eerdmans Publishing. Stuart The City of God. Pasachoff, Robert J. II", The Biblical World , 7 2 : —19 , doi : It was a real ecstatic experience , like that of David under the baka-tree, Elijah on the mountain, Isaiah in the temple, Ezekiel on the Khebar , Jesus in the Jordan , Paul on the Damascus road. It was the perpetual mystery of the divine touching the human.
C; Neill, Stephen Cambridge: James Clarke. Retrieved Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Eerdmans Publishing, p. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, Wm. Eerdmans Publishing, 2nd edition p. Beck, pp. Otto, Verlag Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart, Jewish Encyclopedia. The Geography , Hamilton and W. Falconer in , pp. Chapters 5, 6 p.
The Legends of the Jews Vol. Jew FAQ. Intervarsity Press Academic. Bible Gateway. OCA — Lives of the Saints. Boston, Massachusetts, Armenian Church in Armenian. Retrieved 31 August We find him clearly in this role of Muhammad's forebear in a well-known tradition of the miraculous ascension of the Prophet, where Moses advises Muhammad from his own experience as messenger and lawgiver. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. Prophets in the Quran: an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis.
Continuum International Publishing Group. Tughra Books. Primitive Semitic Religion Today. Kessinger Publishing. Epistle to the Son of the Wolf. Letter to [An Individual].
Retrieved 10 June Some Answered Questions. New York: Baha'i Publishing Trust. The spiritual thirst of mankind has for ages been quenched at Hebrew fountains; but the embodiment in human institutions of truths uttered by the Son of Man eighteen centuries ago was to be mainly the work of Puritan thought and Puritan self-devotion.
They walked by the light of the Scriptures , and were resolved to form a Commonwealth in accordance with the social laws and ideas of the Bible. Mourning Lincoln. Yale University Press. Aunt Harriet, Moses of Her People. Archived from the original on Journal of Theological Studies. Freud and the Legacy of Moses. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bloomsbury Publishing. VI, Archaeological Institute of America p. Mercury Guides. The Rule of Four. New York: Random House. The Dream of the Moving Statue. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Stephen New York: Citadel Press. The Bible and its Rewritings. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Architect of the Capitol. The God Delusion Chapter 7. Bantam Press. Temple Beth Am Library Minyan. My Jewish Learning. Franklin, Benjamin , Franklin, William Temple ed. Abraham J. Malherbe and Everett Ferguson.
Kirsch, Jonathan. Moses: A Life. New York: Ballantine, Kohn, Rebecca. New York: Rugged Land, Freedman, H, ed. Meyers, Carol Cambridge University Press. Shmuel, Safrai , Stern, M ed. Prophets in the Hebrew Bible. Israelite prophets in the Torah. Mentioned in the Former Prophets.
Italics indicate persons whose status as prophets is not universally accepted. Prophets in the Quran.