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Analog recording from which this extract has been taken. Robert Moog invented the concept of a variety of analogue modules all of which can interconnect via a standardized voltage control system. The most common use is to change analog signals into a form that can be manipulated by digital computer, as in data communications. Charles Ives's Fourth of July is characterized by polymeter, polytonality, dense textures, and quotations from popular and folk tunes.

It is a fully integrated work whose multiple layerings and quotations had deep philosophical implications for the composer. Ives, the Transcendentalist, was able to perceive a unity among superficial and discordant events. In this work, he creates analogies to four types of events: acoustical music of parades, church services, and so on ; natural phenomena violin glissando passage representing smoke ; psychological phenomena; and non-programmatic musical unity. Musical Borrowings from which this extract has been taken.

German to assay, to analyse to dissect figurative , to parse, to break down analyse , to study. English, German f. Exercising the ability to break down learned material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood, analysis represents the fourth level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain - the level of understanding just beyond comprehension and application because they require an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material. Analysis may include the identification of the parts, analysis of the relationships between parts, and recognition of the organizational principles involved.

Objectives of lessons which will increase a student's ability to analyse knowledge can be stated with such behavioural terms as: analyze, appraise, audit, break down, characterize, check, classify, compare, conclude draw conclusions , contrast, debate, deduce, determine, diagram, differentiate, discriminate, dissect, distinguish, examine, experiment, generalize, graph, illustrate, inspect, infer, inventory, map, point out, outline no format given , question, reason, refute, relate to, research, screen, scrutinize, search, section, select, separate, sift, simplify, solve, study, subdivide, survey, syllogize, test, and uncover.

The next higher thinking skill is synthesis.

Table of contents

Donald Tovey Essays in Musical Analysis 7 vol. However, music is much more than a progression of chords, and so limited a viewpoint will tells us very little about how music is organised and how that logical organisation produces music that 'makes sense', is 'aesthetically satisfying', or meets whatever criterion we believe should be its purpose.

Roger Scruton has argued that " you may describe it as you like so long as you hear it correctly". In spite of this caveat, it is necessary to understand the laws of harmony, and to be able to understand how a particular piece of tonal music abides by them.

Schenker's theory constitutes a remarkable definition of classical diatonic tonality, especially as confined to the period to which he himself consigns it: from Bach to Brahms. Gregory Proctor writes, "Salzer understood the entire corpus of Western music as subject to his theory, quite the contrary of Schenker's Bach-through-Brahms constraint. To get this breadth of application to work, Salzer had to undermine Schenker's theory at its core. Schenker's theory envisages a musical composition as a layered series of conceptual states, of slices of musical time, where each layer is the structure for the subsequent layer, and each subsequent layer is one of an infinite number of musical realizations of the prior layer.

Salzer's theory posits points of "structure" separated by webs of "prolongation". A Salzerian eliminates or adds notes to the facts of the adjacent layer, thereby either bringing the points of structure literally closer together in the direction of structure or spreading them farther apart in the direction of prolongation. All textbooks in Schenkerian theory and most examples in the scholarly literature are Salzerian. In general, Schenker makes more analytic decisions than do Salzerians, and this is often reflected in the relatively large number of what Daniel Harrison refers to as 'floating note heads!

Hugo Riemann Musikalische Syntaxis. Entwurf einer Lehre des Contrapunkts ; Musikalische Dynamik und Agogik ; Systematische Modulationslehre als Grundlage der musikalischen Formenlehre ; Handbuch der Harmonielehre ; Lehrbuch des einfachen, doppelten und imitierenden Kontrapunkts ; Handbuch der Phrasierung ; System der musikalischen Rhythmik und Metrik Hans Keller an analytical method in which a large musical work is shown, purely be listening to extracts from it, to be built up from a number of cell-like motifs or ideas. ArtLex Art Dictionary - the first section has been drawn from the entry entitled 'analysis'.

For instance, take the sentence, "The dog bit the boy. The opposite type of language uses declensions special endings stuck on the ends of words to show what case each word has. This type is called an inflected or synthetic language. Greek the force of destiny or the natural order of things, to which, the ancient Greeks considered, even the Gods themselves were subject.

English, Swedish a musical foot comprising two short notes or syllables, followed by one long one. Anaphora is the opposite of epistrophe, in which the poet or rhetorician repeats the concluding phrase over and over for effects. While one punk might see anarchy as an expression of chaos and violence, other punks may see it as an expression of peace and equality. Anarco-punk from which this extract has been taken. Anastrophe is specifically a type of hyperbaton in which the adjective appears after the noun when we would expect to find the adjective before the noun.

Anata from which this extract has been taken. English, German n. Lezione Rhythm Changes Anatole in Italian. Soon, Turkish performers created a distinctively Turkish fusion of rock and folk; this was called 'Anatolian rock', a term which now generically describes most any kind of Turkish rock. Anatolian rock from which this extract has been taken. German to grow, to cultivate, to build an extension to a house, to attach, to add-on to a building, to add on, to add to a house [entry provided by Michael Zapf].

German to offer, to supply, to run course of study, etc. German to blow, to blow at, to blow on for example, to try out a new wind instrument to find out whether it sounds freely and possesses a clear tone [entry extended by Michael Zapf]. German to go aboard, to embark, to board a ship, to board, to go on board, to step on board, to climb aboard. German to start on, to break into, to broach, to break, to fall e. German to add, to mount, to attach, to apply, to affix, to fasten, to bring on, to bring along , to fix fasten. French f.

There the anchoress would live out the rest of her days, relying upon the charity of the local community to provide food and water through a small opening. There the anchorite would live out the rest of his days relying upon the charity of the local community to provide food and water through a small opening. Spanish m.

French m. By having one guitarist play lead while the other plays rhythm and then quickly switching, a "discussion" can develop and no one guitarist can be singled out as performing solo. Ancient Form of Weaving from which this extract has been taken. Ancient Music. Greek the shields, the clang of which, the ancient Greeks used the mark the beat of their music on festive occasions.

Latin, ancilla , literally 'helper' or 'maid' less important characters who are not the primary protagonist or antagonist, but who highlight these characters or interact with them in such a way as to provide insight into the narrative action. Typical ancillary characters include foils, choric characters, deuteragonists, soubrettes, tritagonists, and stock characters. German devoutly, devout, reverent, reverently, rapt, raptly, with devotion, devotional, pious, prayerful, attentive.

Inner Mongolia stemming from a collective dance of the Kulun Qi in the south of the Horqin Grassland, 'Andai dance' began as a religious dance used in praying to the god and curing sicknesses. People would perform this dance to gain the blessing of the god, to prevent disease, and to forestall misfortune. Later, the dance gradually became a means of entertainment. Andai dance from which this information has been taken. Andalusan tango from which this information has been taken.

It is otherwise known as the minor descending tetrachord. Traceable back to the Renaissance, its effective sonorities made it one of the most popular progressions in classical music. Andalusan cadence from which this information has been taken. The Baghdad-born musician Zyriab is usually credited with its invention. There used to be twenty-four nuba linked to each hour of the day, but only four nuba have survived in their entirety, and another seven in fragmentary form.

Each mizan begins with instrumental preludes called either tuashia , m'shaliya or bughya , followed by as many as twenty songs sana'a. Valencia's school is now in Fez, while Granada's is located in Teouan and Chaouen. Cities like Tangier and Meknes have their own orchestras as well. Encyclopedia: Music of Morocco from which this information has been taken.

Nietzsche thus argues that all art is mimetic, but that one can distinguish three subcategories of mimetic art, one purely Apollinian, one purely Dionysian, and one that melds and intermingles these two, for which Greek tragedy stands as the historical model. Even at this early stage in his treatise Nietzsche then goes on to provide a first glimpse into how he imagines this interaction occurring in the Attic tragedy he will valorize as the pinnacle of art.

The tragic artist is, first and foremost, a Dionysian artist. We recognize once more, then, that Nietzsche frames his arguments as a contribution to the much broader context of aesthetic theory in general, specifically as a redefinition of the applicability of mimesis. When he shifts from the aesthetic to a more psychological or existential explanation of the interaction between the Apollinian and Dionysian principles of art, Nietzsche proposes a relationship of fundamental interdependence between the horror of Dionysian reality and the concomitant necessity for the redemptive semblance invoked by the Apollinian dream world.

We understand in this context precisely what Nietzsche means when he claims that the world — that is, empirical reality and existence — is only justified as an aesthetic phenomenon Geburt 17, 47, : reality, in all its existential abomination, requires semblance as an eternal palliative. This should not lead one to believe, however, that all semblance, all illusion is by definition good.

On the contrary, the escapism of absolute semblance is precisely what Nietzsche lambastes in Wilhelminian Germany, with its reliance on the deception of science and the fanciful illusionism of its art, represented in Geburt by the genre of classical opera — GRAY good and bad mimesis. On the contrary, it is Dionysian mimesis of the existential horror of the will as filtered through the transfiguring second-order mimesis of Apollinian image that Nietzsche holds up as the high-water mark of artistic achievement, as exemplified for him in Attic tragedy.

And yet in this regard it does not represent a world that is arbitrarily fantasized into the space between heaven and earth; rather, it is a world whose reality and credibility are equal to those that the believing Hellene attributed to Mt. Olympus and all its occupants. The world of tragedy, by contrast, is a creative imitation that exists on the same order of ontic reality as does the world of phenomenal existence itself, and once again Nietzsche turns to the metaphor of the Olympian gods to exemplify this concept.

He goes on to extrapolate from this comment a general maxim about the reality and truth of the poetic world. The contrast between this authentic truth of nature and the cultural mendacity that poses as the sole form of reality is similar to that between the eternal core of things, the thing in itself, and the totality of the phenomenal world. Thus mimesis in Nietzsche takes on positive connotations when it is related either directly to the representation of this metaphysical core, as in the case of music, or when mimesis functions as a palliative that makes this tragic recognition palatable, rather than providing ideological escape from this ultimate tragic insight.

This new dithyramb represents a kind of program music that alienates musical art from its true mission, the direct mimetic representation of the will, by recasting it as the imitator of the phenomenal world. This limitation to mimesis of the phenomenal world of appearances, to the semblance of semblance is, for Nietzsche, the very definition of degeneracy in art, especially in music. In some of his unpublished notes for Geburt Nietzsche is much more lucid on this point. One type reveals itself to us in the form of sensations of pleasure and displeasure and accompanies as a never absent thoroughbass all the other ideational expressions.

In other words, feelings of pleasure and displeasure are universal sensations, and as such they are those forms of ideation that link us most closely with the pre-individual ground of existence. Universality, in short, becomes the measure of authenticity because it points to that realm of experience — the Dionysian — that antedates the principium individuationis, the fragmentation of originary oneness into the manifoldness of distinct individuals.

What is perhaps most significant about the cited passage, however, is that immediately after identifying these two genres of ideation, Nietzsche shifts to the manner of their representation, concentrating initially on the way they express themselves in language. This constitutes, as it were, the music of speech.

From here it is but a short step to the pathos, attention to rhythm and meter, and emotionality of Expressionist literary language. The mimetic object of such speech is not the logos, not the conceptual realm of ideation, but the sub-conceptual, psychological domain of primordial emotions.

Or, put another way, why, and in what sense, is music the origin of tragic art and myth? Only because these allegorical images are born of music itself does their semblance contain a dimension of authenticity: these images, as images, are adequate to the Dionysian element they allegorically represent. Indeed, as Nietzsche explains a few pages later, this allegorical representation itself retains the mimetic capacity inherent in music. Denn der Mythus will als ein einziges Exempel einer ins Unendliche hinein starrenden Allgemeinheit und Wahrheit anschaulich empfunden werden.

Genuinely Dionysian music presents itself to us as just such a universal mirror of the world will; the visual phenomenon refracted in this mirror immediately expands for our emotions into the replica of an eternal truth. It is, in essence, a kind of synaesthetic metamorphosis, a transformation of what is manifest in rhythm, meter, and sound into the Apollinian sphere of the visual.

It is difficult to imagine a more emphatic and powerful defense of the ultimate reality of allegorical portrayal. But what is this symbolization of particular universality if not allegory? Subjectivism is only the proper word here if we identify it with that core level of experience below the sphere of the phenomenal that Nietzsche identifies with the Dionysian; it is, perhaps, subjective, but it is nonetheless, for Nietzsche and the Expressionists, a shared subjectivism.


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The drive to discover a level of universal truth and reality below the everyday dimensions of the phenomenal world was one of the characteristic traits of the Expressionist artists. One began to dissolve the surrounding reality into irreality, and to penetrate beyond the realm of appearances to the essence; , Es wird so lange gesucht in seinem eigentlichsten Wesen, bis seine tiefere Form sich ergibt, bis das Haus aufsteht, das befreit ist von dem dumpfen Zwang der falschen Wirklichkeit.

It goes beyond this. It is pursued in its most authentic essence until its more profound form comes to the fore, until a house emerges that is freed from the dull constraints of false reality. Decades before Husserl, Nietzsche emerged as the philosopher of what we might call a phenomenological aesthetics, an aesthetic theory that exploited the principle of representational mimesis as a revelatory strategy for the essence of existence.

In the writers of German Expressionism he found these blood relatives, a group of artists with the analytical and retrospective abilities to grasp and apply the metaphysical mimesis he advocated in this first work of modern aesthetic theory. Throughout this essay, translations from the German are my own. To my way of thinking, this conception underestimates the special enchantment Nietzsche held for the Expressionist writers.

See Sweet, The same can be said for the scientific or Socratic worldview. For Benn Nietzsche is the greatest genius of the German language; Frantz Clement calls Nietzsche the first patheticist of modernism Hillebrand, ; Richard Dehmel and Heinrich Mann revere him as a linguistic innovator Hillebrand, , ; and Otto Flake calls him the master of the German language Hillebrand, Bennett, Benjamin. Berry, Wanda Warren. Bloch, Ernst. Bronner, Stephen Eric, and Douglas Kellner. Passion and Rebellion: The Expressionist Heritage.

New York: J. Bergin, De Man, Paul. New Haven: Yale UP, Drost, Mark P. Edschmid, Kasimir. Foster, Jr. Princeton: Princeton UP, Hillebrand, Bruno, ed.

Dolmetsch Online - Music Dictionary An - Ang

Forschungsergebnisse: Nietzsche und die deutsche Literatur. Deutsche Texte Nietzsche und die deutsche Literatur: Texte zur Nietzsche-Rezeption, — Huebner, Friedrich Markus. Kellner, Douglas. Lacoue-Labarthe, Philippe. Martens, Gunter. McGinn, Robert E. Meyer, Theo. Nietzsche und die Kunst. Nietzsche, Friedrich. In Kritische Studienausgabe, — Kritische Studienausgabe.

Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari. Nussbaum, Martha C. Christopher Jenaway, — Pinthus, Kurt. Porter, James I. Rampley, Matthew. Nietzsche, Aesthetics and Modernity. Rethy, Robert. Ritter, Mark. Rolleston, James. Schopenhauer, Arthur. Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung. Wiesbaden: Brockhaus, Sokel, Walter H.

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Staten, Henry. Sweet, Dennis. Taylor, Seth. Monographien und Texte zur Nietzsche-Forschung, vol. Berlin: De Gruyter, Vietta, Sylvio, and Hans-Georg Kemper. Munich: Fink, Zweig, Stefan. The question is not only vague and ambiguous, but exceptionally difficult to answer, because we do not have criteria that would provide us with the necessary information to correctly pose the question. Indeed, there exists a general, albeit somewhat tentative, consensus of scholarly opinion that the works of writers published in avant-garde periodicals between and the early s may be termed Expressionist.

However, these are purely external and accidental criteria, conveying little about the shared formal, stylistic, and thematic characteristics of these writers. Nevertheless, they do provide a point of departure for subsequent study. Perhaps the question can be posed in this way: What are the inherent or formal characteristics shared by the many writers whose works appeared in avantgarde periodicals, book series, and anthologies between and or that would entitle us to call them Expressionist?

Would a characterization that would allow a comparison to Romanticism or Naturalism be preferable? Despite the fact that in these much longer and betterresearched literary movements terminological ambiguity still persists indeed, over-generalization is intrinsic to any definition of genre , the terms Romanticism and Naturalism are nevertheless based upon far more concise and accepted criteria than the constant vacillation found in the term Expressionism. In this essay, the question of what criteria would be most suitable to define Expressionism will be addressed, specifically in respect to a single literary genre, namely, narrative prose.

SOKEL a poetics of narration that would enable us to devise a coherent theory of Expressionist prose. Among the writers of Expressionism there was little theoretical reflection. It is therefore much more difficult to assess the theory of Expressionism than that of Romanticism or Naturalism. The wellknown commentaries of Kasimir Edschmid, Paul Kornfeld, and Georg Kaiser, among others, have virtually nothing to say about formal, stylistic, and structural aspects of Expressionist literature. In the years between and he had already contributed many concrete and important ideas about Expressionist prose, so much so that we may use it as the basis for an Expressionist theory of epic prose.

It is impossible to speak of a single coherent theory of narrative prose in Expressionism. In short, we meet with a multiplicity of theoretical points of view, and thus we must investigate further to discover a common denominator shared by the various theories of Expressionist narrative prose. However, this also aptly illustrates an important difference in their theories of narrative. Psychological motivation, circumstantial determination, and causality cannot be ascribed to the genre of epic, which is based upon description and naturalistic representation. The nouveau roman is mentioned in this connection to underscore the fact that the two most prominent Expressionists start out from entirely different theories of prose.

This tradition also includes Naturalism and Futurism, as well as Kafka and the nouveau roman. Indeed, Naturalism sets out to abolish the intervention of the narrator situated between external reality and the reader. Accordingly, he exhorts the Expressionist to follow in the footsteps of Realist and Naturalist techniques of narration. Edschmid too viewed Expressionism as a further elaboration of Naturalism, but elevated it to a visionary plane.

He is less concerned with literary technique than he is with conveying a specific worldview. This is an essential difference between the two authors. He opposes form to idea, but form is more than a mere technique, it is the idea of form based on Platonic philosophy, an existential concept and part of his worldview. Deeply indebted to Nietzsche, his literary theory is ultimately derived from Romanticism and German Idealism.

Not only his idealism, but also his style and sentence structure are reminiscent of Friedrich Schlegel. In general he traced the prevalent ideas of his generation back to Nietzsche. Einstein wished to revive free, creative spontaneity, and sovereignty of mind playfully exploring the multifarious possibilities of thought. In Einstein the narrator is to be present in his reflections and ideas, mediated by a character who constantly ponders and comments upon the narrative. Indeed, reflection replaces depiction.

Instead of Anschaulichkeit or three-dimensional plasticity , scenic evocation and images, we are given intellectual discourse. The fundamental difference between these two leading tendencies in Expressionist prose is evident in the use of language: specifically, in the construction of sentences. They both tend towards structural concision, forcefulness, and terseness of expression.

This concise use of speech is a unique quality common to the greater part of Expressionist narrative prose and brings us close to a definition of its narrative technique. However, we find evidence of such syntactic terseness and concision expressed in different ways in the two separate groups of Expressionist writers.

In the former, syntactic brevity and ellipsis prevail, while in the latter an aphoristic sententiousness predominates. However, this distinction is most tentative and must be examined in the context of narrative perspective and structure. Subordinate clauses explaining or describing motivation are missing, and syntax is reduced to its most basic elements.

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This entailed a sparseness of words, the rejection of discursive reasoning, and the avoidance of ornamental figuration. His views on narrative technique are essentially anti-psychological. However, he embraces psychiatry, since, in his view, it restricts itself to the simple notation of events and actions as such. The narrative ideal articulated in this opposition between psychology and psychiatry finds clear expression in the sentence structure and language of the short stories and novels in his Expressionist phase; that ideal requires a paratactic style, in which syntactic subordination very nearly ceases to exist.

The stones blackened; the scissors got hot; he let them drop. Even though the subject of the sentence is mentioned only once, each clause is an independent sentence, joined to the other not by subordination, but rather coordination. If the subject er he were repeated, in place of each semicolon we could place a period and this would not impair the syntactic coherence. Therefore, it is not the brevity of the sentences, but their paratactic coordination that constitutes this style. The elimination of syntactic subordination defines the very essence of Expressionist style.

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Only what actually occurs gets stated. The absence of any sort of commentary, of any narrative intervention, presupposes the paratactic principle of Kinostil. It is impossible to make an absolute distinction between naturalistic representation and the perspectives of the figures or persons in a novel, the latter fully developed in the technique of stream of consciousness.

He employs a mixture of the two. In these instances, gesture is utilized as an essential compositional technique. It is employed to symbolize the inner life of the character, which conventionally is done by a narrator. Abstractions, sentiments, and ideas are not always successfully transformed into concrete imagery and visual representation. This transformation can only occur when dialogue and stream of consciousness usurp the conventional function of narration. However, the generous use of similes in the narrative serves to make the narrative point of view more subjective. To be sure, Heym never employs rhetorical commentary.

SOKEL intends to influence the reader, as for example in this novella. Leonhard Frank — makes more extreme and direct use of rhetorical figures in his prose works. Moreover, the interjection of opinions into the narrative invokes generalizations surpassing the limits of the text. The narrator seeks to persuade the reader by a particular choice of words. Thus the narrative depicts a worldview and seeks to demonstrate a truth that the author wants to propagate.

We shall refer to this technique, employed by many important prose writers in Expressionism, as parabolic narrative. The distinction between parables told in the first and in the third person is of little relevance here. The paratactic style is also indebted to the bible. Sentences often begin with Und, a common feature of exemplary prose, and the succession of events and statements suggests a life of wandering on earth, expressing edifying views of the holy figure from the point of view of a devout and loving disciple.

Borrowing from Schopenhauer and materialism, Ehrenstein seeks to demonstrate the senselessness and absurdity of existence. It is above all Mynona — who made the most extensive use of the parabolic form. Like Leonhard Frank, Mynona addresses topics beyond the story, and the interjections of the narrator determine the meaning of the tale. The narrator himself is marked through the use of grotesque irony. His madness is shown from a critical and sovereign point of view.

It is a negativity that leads to the spiritual essence of being. His sketches are ironic-grotesque parables, illustrations of nonsense, beyond which lies a deeper spiritual meaning. Here the reemergence of authorial intention is deemed necessary. As is the case in the works of Jean Paul, E. Hoffmann, Raabe, and later Musil, authorial intentionality prevails.

SOKEL narrator absolute status, denies him absolute reality. They all reject the narrative technique of representation, that is, of Bauen as a goal in itself. As for Mynona, parable is effective in two ways, namely, through philosophical dialogue, and grotesque fantasy. These two components characterize the dialogue as well as the circumstances, situations, and figures in the novel. The dialogue contains opinions and points of view that constitute the content of the novel. The narrative is not objective; it is subjective, intellectual and amorphous, a merely thematic aspect of the narrative structure.

Ideas appear and find formulation in the text. In Bebuquin, character development is secondary to the ideas, which are what interested Einstein. These cogitations are formulated as aphorisms and accompanied by astonishing, absurd, and fantastic events. One example taken from Bebuquin illustrates the interweaving of these aspects in this first Expressionist novel:. Es handelte sich um den Gedanken, der logisch war, woher auch seine Ursachen kamen.

Wir sind nicht mehr so phantasielos, das Dasein eines Gottes zu behaupten. Bebuquin, sehen Sie einmal. He felt in this contradiction no animation, but rather release, repose. It was not negation that was fun. He despised these pretentious grumblers. He despised this uncleanliness of dramatic man. Yet the reasons were secondary. It was the thought that mattered, which was logical, whatever its origins. He wanted to take it a little easy after his death, since he did not yet know anything for sure about immortality. But unfortunately you will probably have no success since you assume only a logical and a non-logical.

There are many types of logic, my friend, at war within us and the alogical derives from that battle. We are no longer so lacking in imagination as to claim the existence of a God. All shameless capitulation to the concept of unity speaks only to the laziness of your fellow humans. Bebuquin, take a look.


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However, he does not provide guidance or an interpretation, as is often the case in Mynona. That clearly represents an instance of allegorical and parabolic language. SOKEL epigrams. The self-reflections of the main character — in part or totally identified with the narrator — spontaneously transform external events into intellectual or cognitive experience and transmute every action of the plot into stream of consciousness. This narrative technique is employed by Gustav Sack in Ein verbummelter Student An Idle Student, written —13, published , by Gottfried Benn in his collection of stories Gehirne Brains, , and by Flake in Stadt des Hirns City of the Brain; in Flake the title itself clearly expresses this intellectualization of narrative.

We now turn to the use of allegory in Expressionist narrative prose, which is closely associated with the use of fantasy. In this skull things appear silver-plated and wonderfully polished an image obviously symbolizing the intellect. The especially fantastic nature of the image provides a vehicle to convey ideas. With writers who employ allegory, such as Kubin, Meyrink, and Kafka, two fundamental tendencies of epic or prose Expressionism come together: namely, naturalistic, scenic, concrete representation and intellectual parables. In Kafka, however, the central idea, as expressed through images or material objects, ultimately remains unknown, and his allegories therefore permit an infinite number of interpretations.

In Einstein, Meyrink, and Kubin, the meaning of the allegory is more accessible. With allegorical clarity, these linked ideas appear as the visionary content of the narrated sequence of events. The meaning of the bureaucracies appearing in these works is so multivalent that it remains inseparable from the representation in the work and remains irreducible to any simple equation with specific ideas.

Linguistically speaking, we cannot define any of the Austrian writers using allegory, whether they are from Prague or from Vienna, as Expressionists. The general stylistic features of Expressionist prose parataxis, ellipsis, syntactic distortion do not apply to the narrative styles of Kafka, Meyrink, Kubin, or Musil. Here, syntactic complexity and subordination still remain the rule.

Therefore, those authors cannot be included among the Expressionists. While the aforementioned features cannot be applied to that group of authors, the Expressionist use of narrative perspective, form, and structure certainly can. We have already drawn attention to stylistic parallels and relations between Musil and Einstein.

Kafka plays a special role in the development of narrative technique in Expressionism, evident in the way he intensifies the ambiguity of the parabolic-allegorical forms of narration, widely used by Expressionists. In regard to narrative perspective, Kafka develops to an extreme the exclusion of the omniscient narrator. These prose works, among the most interesting and finest narrative works produced by Expressionism, all convey a distorted view of the world narrated from the very personal viewpoint of the main character, who in three of these works is insane.

The petty bourgeois is revealed as a fantastically macabre and grotesque menace. Mann maintained the same grotesque intensity of narrator perspective through large sections of the book. Nonetheless, there exists between Kafka and the other Expressionists an essential distinction in regard to the use of figural perspective. The internal point of view, the point of orientation for narrated events, is entirely coherent in Kafka, untouched by any reference to an external reality. However, from a linguistic point of view, we cannot consider him a true Expressionist. This example shows us that we must proceed with nuanced care when seeking to define Expressionist prose.

After this discussion of narrative perspectivism, let us now again turn to linguistic features of Expressionism in order to reiterate that the two fundamental features of its prose were the pursuit of the utmost compression of language and syntactic distortion. We observe that aphorisms predominate whenever naturalistic representation yields to the expression of ideas. Aphorisms deal with generalizations and as such refer to ideas beyond the text, to a region shared by reader and narrator.

Events and characters assume secondary importance; the identical relationship of the narrated events to reality external to the narrative is of primary importance. Aphorisms disturb the autonomy of the fictional world represented in the narrative. Aphorism is linked to irony. The irony of Einstein and Mynona rests upon the keen awareness of the abyss that separates the world of ideas from empirical reality.

In the works of Alfred Lichtenstein — , which depict the milieu of the Berlin artistic community, ironic anecdotes, composed of aphorisms, are the most prominent feature of the narrative. In order to live decently, one has to be a scoundrel; Aphorisms convey a philosophy or a truth about life in concise wording of universal applicability. The escalation of the aphorism from a sentence into a scene, anecdote, or even story by necessity leads to parable.

Two flies are drowned in an inkpot, and in this grotesque and trivial event the narrator finds an illustration of the tragic meaninglessness of existence. The distinction between the parables of Lichtenstein and Ehrenstein and those of Mynona is that the latter, despite his use of irony and relativity, permits the Platonic idea to shine through, as the eternal possibility of intellectual freedom. In contrast, the former two writers demonstrate the absurdity of life by grotesquely combining the trite and ridiculous with sorrow and tragedy.

However, in Kafka, the incomprehensible defeats all attempts at interpretation. SOKEL employed parables. The sentence structure and linguistic aberrations transform his stories into ironic, or rather, burlesque parables. This widespread tendency toward ellipsis in Expressionist prose has however also an entirely different cause that the admirer of Sternheim, Gottfried Benn, formulates as follows:. However, beneath those differences lies a deeper affinity uniting these authors in their shared antipathy toward psychology, namely, the rejection of causality as a sufficient explanation of human behavior and of the world.

In both of these currents of Expressionism, the writers are bent on eliminating the opposition between the self and external reality, between subject and object, between inside and outside. In a formal and linguistic respect, inner monologue achieves the elimination of the subject-object opposition.

In these writers, the distinction between inner and external reality ceases to exist. Everything flows together. A narrative structure of shifting perspectives and absence of narrative orientation makes the reader feel everywhere and nowhere at all. Moreover, such a narrative technique is the ultimate triumph of literary Naturalism; for the narrator by relinquishing the role of reporter allows the characters an unmediated expression of fictional reality.

Annulling the distinction between dialogue and narrative achieves complete autonomy of the text. This form of inner monologue is more radical than anything encountered in Naturalism. It deconstructs syntax by means of radical ellipsis and destroys the mimetic representation of reality.

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It undermines the coherent narrative logic presupposed in Naturalism, that is, causality, argument, and order. Developing out of Naturalism, the narrative technique of inner monologue became a normative form and visionary experience in Expressionism, composed of musical leitmotifs. Instead of sentences expressing a logically coherent world, Broch utilizes sequences of associative appositions. That omission of predicates and the liquefying of sentences into a stream of language suggests a reaching out toward infinity.

The essays in that volume all followed the same format, with no notes and no page numbers for citations. The current translation now provides page numbers to the most recent available editions, rather than to the edition available when the article was first published. Additional notes are thus from the editor, not the author, as are all English translations. Works Cited Beissner, Friedrich. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, Walter Muschg. Olten and Freiburg im Breisgau: Walter-Verlag, Olten and Freiburg im Breisgau: Walter, Leipzig: Kurt Wolff, ; Stuttgart: Reclam, Ehrenstein, Albert.

Fritz Martini, 72— Werke: Band 1, — Rolf-Peter Baacke, with assistance from Jens Kwasny. Frank, Leonhard. Der Mensch ist gut.

German Ideologies Since 1945: Studies in the Political Thought and Culture of the Bonn Republic

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