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Edition de poche : Hachette-Pluriel, Dubar, C. Dubar, L'autre jeunesse. PU du Septentrion, Dubar, F. Tripier, Sociologie des professions , A. Dubar, Y. Belin, Dubar, D.

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Dubar, La socialisation. Chercher par. Lire la suite The French system of universities is very alien to Anglo-Saxon ways of organising the academy.

Revue en ligne de sciences humaines et sociales

It is also different from the much more decentralised structures prevalent in other French-speaking contexts such as Switzerland or Quebec. Understanding the intricacies of the French system and its potential for immobility helps to understand the non-emergence of Foucault within French geography. Research is still largely directed centrally within programmes defined by the Ministry of Research and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Cnrs Collignon, Although naturally not restricted to the academy, such a definition seems convincingly apt in France, land of the supposedly reason-led planification nationale.

Instead, as one anonymous colleague put it, the system rewards cooptation through spiritual formatting from an early stage, rewarding those who are strong enough to navigate through a jungle of implicit and explicit rules, gaining substantial diplomatic and strategic skills in the process and wisely choosing well-placed mentors Anon , personal communication.

In comparison to British or North American contexts, the French geographical world is like a small family within which — as one geographer put it — il faut montrer patte blanche Chivallon, , pers. Furthermore, a form of intellectual immobility is maintained by hierarchy: academics only get to supervise doctoral theses towards the end of their careers, once they have attained the status of full professors, after passing another hurdle, similar to the German Habilitation, by writing what amounts to a second thesis.

Une conception sociale du sacré

Anything identified as jargon is savagely frowned upon. As Bourdieu has noted, this need to position oneself within the academia has an important effect on how ideas are spread and appropriated, relating to the varying visibility of different thinkers.

L'anthropologie et les recherches en sciences sociales dans le tiers Monde

Another substantial difference in France is the rarity of public debates, partly due to the absence of recent paradigmatic change, due mainly to reduced generational renewal. In consequence of this highly codified French system, the smaller, marginal or peripheral schools in Switzerland and Quebec have sometimes acted as catalysts and innovators, largely simply by staying outside of partisan politics in France.

The former will be discussed more at length towards the end of this paper. More convincing, I believe, is that opinion that Foucault was read, but that the academic and political contexts were not conducive to his absorption and adaptation in any meaningful way. His impact was therefore much more difficult to identify than within the more obviously allusive Anglo way of writing. Foucault, questioning universalising knowledge — a French obsession — was also strategically avoided.

This provided a second impetus to explore his work, after the first wave provoked by Raffestin in the Eighties. While this is of course a rather rash statement, it nevertheless reflects to a certain extent how Foucault has been perceived in France. Translation and transposition, as well as the different way quotes and literature reviews are used in both traditions are important factors in explaining the different reception of Foucault. This need to adapt an author to a discipline, an act of conceptual translation, may be paradoxically easier when the author is writing in another language.

Cusset had further suggested that because English is a more playful language it desecrates words more eagerly than French Cusset, , making it easier for Anglos to reinvent Foucault to suit a new paradigm. Chivallon is much less amused by this desecration of Foucault and others, and notes with some irritation that commentaries on commentaries have tended to accumulate in the Anglo world Chivallon, ; see also Cusset, Taking this suggestion seriously, I will briefly examine each of these, aiming for a brief panorama of what has actually been done.

Foucault famously stated that space is fundamental in any form of communal life; space is fundamental in any exercise of power see for instance Elden, Raffestin was a driving force of what has been called the post-vidalian critique 25 , endorsing the role of senior theoretician in the linguistic and constructivist turn the discipline took in the Francophone world at the end of the Seventies.

Much of his inspiration came from the work of Michel Foucault, Henri Lefebvre, Martin Heidegger and Luis Prieto, bringing a much-needed breadth of references to a discipline pitted by intellectual incest. He is one rare example of a Francophone geographer active within and not outside the wider sciences humaines. It is in fact not always easy to read Raffestin, as his grand theory of territory and territoriality, as well as his wider writings on the geographical intelligibility of reality, are often put forward more as proposals than polished theories.

Raffestin writes beautifully, making use of a breadth of references and myths. It hides so efficiently specifically because it is present everywhere. It is present in every relation, within every action: it insidiously uses every social fracture to infiltrate into the heart of people. It is ambiguous because there is Power and there is power. But the former is easier to grasp because it manifests itself through complex apparatuses that surround and grasp each territory, control the population and dominate the resources.

Par exemple,.

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Mais seulement une courte marche, ok? Bouvier, , p. Inversement, tous les groupes sont-ils des sujets pluriels?

Enfin vient le jour dit. Pour le philosophe Anthonie Meijers, un groupe ne peut pas avoir de croyances au sens strict. Dans le cas en question, le co-engagement est simplement de croire que p tel un seul corps as a body. Batifoulier Ph. Beller M. Boudon R. Bouvier A. Bratman M. Carassa A. Chevalley C. Kaufmann dir.

Conein B. Descombes V.