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Expert Rev Hematol. Acetyl-lysine erasers and readers in the control of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy. Biochem Cell Biol. Development of novel cellular histone-binding and chromatin-displacement assays for bromodomain drug discovery. Bromodomain Histone Readers and Cancer. J Mol Biol. Mol Oncol. Both conditions occur due to defects in the repair and replications of genomic DNA. CIN refers to a persistent high rate of chromosome missegregation, which leads to alterations in the increase or loss of chromosome numbers in colon cells.
CIN may originate from an event in mitosis leading to a chromosome error like a kinetochore defect, alterations in the spindle apparatus, chromosomal adhesion defect or mitotic spindle checkpoint defect. CIN can also occur due to an error in premitotic phases, such as cellular replication stress that may lead to an aberration in the chromosome structure and dysregulation of the centrosome leading to multipolar mitosis [ 26 ].
All these events, plus chromosome pulverization resulting from errors in mitosis, ultimately lead to a damage to the genomic stability of cells and the incorporation of errors in cellular genome replications [ 27 ]. Erroneous cytokinesis and subsequent pdependent confiscation of the cell result in the development of polyploidy in a cell, which leads to aneuploid daughter cells via multipolar mitosis [ 28 ]. Conversely, the loss of p53 may result in a polyploidy-multipolar mitosis-aneuploid cycle, which is highly detrimental to the genomic stability of the cells.
In addition, a MIN-type chromosomal modification or its underlying causes can also lead to mitotic errors and CIN [ 29 ]. According to a study by Dunican et al. Epigenetic alterations in colon cancer affect the expression of hundreds of genes. Probiotics, prebiotics and dietary phytometabolites such as polyphenols, phytoestogens, nonprotein amino acids and saponins, etc. Among the beneficial effects of probiotics observed in humans are the stimulation of gut immunity through various mechanisms, prevention of diarrhea and enhanced tolerance to lactose [ 35 ].
In addition, lactobacilli have other prohealth attributes, such as the synthesis of vitamin B, the improvement of mineral and nutrient absorption, and the degradation or removal of certain antinutritional phytometabolites [ 36 , 37 ]. However, the criteria for the selection of probiotics of human gut origin and traditionally fermented foods are somewhat empirical.
The selection is based on parameters like enhancing the host endogenous defense mechanisms by ameliorating the humoral immunity, and it is thus promoting the gut immunological barriers [ 38 ]. In addition, probiotics have been found to stimulate nonspecific resistance to invading pathogens [ 39 ], thereby aiding in modulating host immunity to harmful antigens with a potential to downregulate hypersensitivity reactions [ 40 ].
The expression and regulation of genes is highly dependent on and coordinated by nutrients, micronutrients and microbial metabolites [ 18 , 41 ]. Fiber and some fermentable oligosaccharides are subjected to gut microbial breakdown, resulting primarily in the production of short-chain fatty acids SCFAs , i. In addition, formate, valerate, caproate and branched-chain fatty acids, such as isobutyrate, 2-methylvalerate, and isovalerate, are also produced in low quantities from the catabolism of some branched-chain amino acids [ 42 ].
SCFAs are bioactive molecules and possess anti-inflammatory activities that play a vital role in the regulation of immune functions at the intestinal mucosal surface and are postulated to be important effector molecules with multiple roles. There is evidence for the ability of SCFAs to activate the apoptosis cascade and reduce the risk of cancer [ 43 ].
Studies have revealed that polyunsaturated fatty acids and volatile fatty acids usually interact and bestow protection against colon cancer [ 44 , 45 ]. SCFAs have been found to induce apoptosis, presumably related to epigenetic modification, cell cycle arrest and activation of proapoptotic cellular genes. Although the incorporation of fatty acids into CRC chemotherapy regimens is still in its infancy, evidence is accumulating to allow the identification of the length of fatty acid chains capable of exerting most effectively antineoplastic activity. The data on the effect of butyrate on colon cancer is extensive, but it cannot be considered conclusive.
Based on studies on the absorption and metabolism of SCFAs, the daily production of butyrate in the human large bowel is estimated to be more than mmol, which is readily absorbed across mucosa [ 46 ]. Based on observations in other species studied, it was inferred that human beings have a larger capacity for absorption and metabolism of SCFAs in the GI tract [ 46 ].
Three major pathways are involved in the uptake of butyrate in the GI tract: 1 diffusion of the undissociated form through lipid membranes of the distal colon, 2 countertransportation mediated by bicarbonate ions and 3 paracellular diffusion of the anionic form in the proximal colon [ 47 ]. It is believed that butyrate can minimize the incidence of CRC.
Clustering of SCFAs within the colonic lumen aids in maintaining a favorable low pH, which is vital for the effectiveness of numerous enzymes and for inhibiting the metabolism of carcinogenic agents in the gut [ 48 ]. SCFAs exert several other important health-promoting actions, such as lowering intestinal pH, acting as energy sources for colonocytes, the stimulation of colonic blood flow, contraction of smooth muscle cells, transepithelial chloride secretion and proliferation of colonic epithelial cells through various proliferative stimuli [ 49 ]. Evidence shows that dietary fibers and SCFAs lower the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease by decreasing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by nuclear factor kappa B and by stimulating the absorption of sodium and water [ 50 , 51 ].
In addition, n-butyrate is also known to influence cell-specific gene expression in intestinal cells, thereby influencing immune responses and oxidative and metabolic stress [ 54 , 55 ]. Several lines of evidence indicate that SCFAs may serve as epigenetic drugs or HDAC inhibitors that play an important role as anticancer biomolecules with antiproliferative effects against tumor cells [ 56 , 57 ]. Fermented fecal supernatants were found to be rich in butyrate and propionate and to exhibit strong anti-HDAC activity in colon cancer cell lines [ 59 ].
The anti-HDAC activity was attributed to the disruption of processes involved in the generation of dendritic cells from bone marrow stem cells, primarily through associated sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter S1c5a8 -dependent inhibition of HDACs [ 60 ]. S1c5a8 is responsible for the transportation of butyrate and propionate into cells, and it is likely that these acids block the development of dendritic cell precursor cells [ 60 ]. Cohort studies have been unable to detect significant effects, but most case-control investigations advocate a protective role of probiotics in fermented dairy foods against colon cancer [ 61 ].
The majority of the anticarcinogenic effects of butyrate have been observed in vitro using cancer cell lines. In these models, the addition of butyrate has been found to inhibit cellular proliferation and to induce apoptosis, necrosis and differentiation of carcinoma cell lines [ 62 , 63 , 64 , 65 ].
Butyrate has also been shown to stimulate a physiological pattern of cellular proliferation in the basal crypts in the colon as well as a reduction in the number and size of aberrant cryptic foci, which serve as earliest detectable neoplastic lesions in colon carcinoma [ 66 ]. Butyrate reduces the expression of the genes cyclin D1 and c-myc, which are vital for the development of CRC [ 67 ].
An optimal anticancer drug would be one that destroys tumoral cells, but not healthy somatic cells. Another important mechanism by which butyrate interferes with colon carcinoma cells is the inhibition of HDAC, which leads to the hyperacetylation of histone residues. The aberrant histone acetylation leads to impaired transcription and silencing of genes involved in the control of cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis [ 69 ].
As an HDAC inhibitor, butyrate increases the expression of p21 WAFI by selectively regulating the acetylation of gene-associated histones and by inducing cell cycle arrest at the GI stage [ 70 ]. Manipulation of the gut ecosystem through dietary probiotics and prebiotics to reduce the risk of colon cancers heralds niche areas of investigation in controlling gut disease [ 71 , 72 ]. Epigenetic modification, which refers to the methylation of DNA through the covalent addition of a methyl moiety to the nucleotide cytosine, has an important role in the regulation of gene expression.
Virtually every step of carcinogenesis or tumorigenesis is dependent on epigenetic modifications in the cellular genome. A few genes, called imprinted genes, are regulated by the methylation of CpG islands in their promoter. Volume 46 Issue 2. Volume 46 Issue 1. Volume 45 Issue Volume 45 Issue 9. Volume 45 Issue 8. Volume 45 Issue 7. Volume 45 Issue 6. Volume 45 Issue 5. Volume 45 Issue 4.
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Jagodic, Dept. This is the final version - click for previous version. Export citation Add to favorites Get permissions Track citations. Abstract Multiple sclerosis MS is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Calabrese et al. Kumagai et al. Graves et al. Decreased global 5hmC level and slightly increased 5mC level in MS. Maltby et al. Bos et al. DNA methylation difference between MS patients with different disease duration. Kulakova et al.
PPMS vs. Neven et al. No association between repetitive element methylation and MS course. Ayuso et al. No relationship of alternative promoter methylation level with MS clinical parameters. Ruhrmann et al. Mastronardi et al. Huynh et al. Correlation with expression of a portion of corresponding genes. Field et al. Download figure Download PowerPoint. The emerging role of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in neurodegenerative diseases. Front Neurosci 8 : , Vitamin D receptor gene is epigenetically altered and transcriptionally up-regulated in multiple sclerosis. PLoS One 12 : e, Lower brain-derived neurotrophic factor in serum of relapsing remitting MS: reversal by glatiramer acetate.
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